The Last Straw

Fact: 500 million plastic straws are used and thrown away every day in the U.S. alone. Shocking, right? That’s why, as of July 2016, PacWhale Eco-Adventures no longer serves plastic drinking straws on our vessels.

What’s the big deal about having a straw in my drink?

  1. Increased air pollution. Plastic production needs electricity, one of the leading sources of air pollution in the U.S., according to a recent Environmental Protection Agency report. Oil and gas are also needed which means drilling, a harmful process known for destroying habitats. Then, gas is needed to transport the plastic materials from producers to straw makers, electricity is used to power straw-making machines, and even more gas is needed to deliver straws to customers. Besides banning straws, PacWhale Eco-Adventures has implemented a number of other green features, including using high efficiency engines on our vessels, locally sourced catering for our cruises, and LED lighting for our offices.
  2. Increased ocean pollution. Plastic drinking straws are one of the top 10 items picked up at beach cleanups worldwide. And it’s not just straws; studies estimate that 10-20 million tons of plastic ends up in the ocean each year. Once there, plastic can harm marine life through ingestion and/or entanglement. All species of sea turtles and approximately one third of all seabird species have suffered from harmful effects caused by eating plastic. If swallowed, plastics can cause internal blockages leading to starvation and drowning. Plastics also contain chemicals which can stop animals from being able to reproduce. Entanglement in debris also threatens marine life. Ongoing efforts to recover the endangered Hawaiian monk seal have been hindered by entanglement deaths. If you want to help clean up plastic debris from our coastlines, you can sign up for Pacific Whale Foundation’s Volunteering on Vacation program. If you’re not on Maui, don’t let that stop you, grab a reusable bag and head down to your local beach to collect some rubbish today.
  3. Unsustainable growth of landfills. Every piece of plastic ever made, regardless of whether it has been recycled, still exists. Up to 43% of the worlds plastic ends up in landfills, a situation that is only going to get worse.

So take a stand with us and say no to plastic straws, and single use plastics in general. You’ll be helping to create a more sustainable earth with cleaner air, land, and oceans for generations to come.

 

Sources

Pod types in Hervey Bay

In an earlier post, we mentioned the recent appearance of mothers with calves in Hervey Bay. Humpback whales do not all migrate at the same time; rather, multiple group types will be predominantly seen at different points throughout the migration.

The earliest pulse of whales to arrive in Hervey Bay is sub-adult whales; meaning whales that are sexually mature but have not yet reached their full size. Sub-adults in this area seem particularly curious about the vessels, and the early portion of the season is well known for “mugging” events where the whales approach the vessel. Later in the season, mothers and calves begin to migrate through the area, and the sub-adults continue their migration toward their Antarctic feeding grounds. Mothers with calves tend to stay in the tropical breeding areas longer than the sub-adults, likely to allow the calf more time to build up its muscles and blubber layer before beginning the migration southward. The protected waters on the westward side of Fraser Island provide a safe, sheltered stopover for these mothers to rest and nurse their calves.

Nursing is commonly observed here in Hervey Bay, and occasionally the mothers exhibit an interesting “fluke up” posture while feeding their calves. This behavior is characterized by the mother sticking her tail flukes out of the water and pointing her head downwards. While the mother is stationary in this posture, the calf will dive down to nurse and then pop up to the surface repeatedly for quick breaths of air. Eventually, as with the sub-adults, the mothers and calves will leave the area to continue their migration. It is important for the mother to return to the feeding grounds to replenish her energy stores lost from nursing as well as to properly wean her calf and teach it to feed on its own.

After the bulk of the mothers and calves have left the bay, mature whales will make up the majority of the latest pods in the season. These are whales that remained in the breeding areas the longest, for example, adult males trying to ensure the best chances of mating.

There are interesting trade-offs to consider in such a large scale migration where whales travel away from their feeding grounds, and these trade-offs affect whales differently depending on their sex, age, and reproductive status.

Are the whales jumping for joy in Hervey Bay?

Breaching, or jumping out of the water, is a behavior that the PWF researchers in Hervey Bay and in Maui observe frequently. A commonly asked question is “Why do whales breach”? The short answer is that no one knows a single cause for this behavior; however, there are a number of theories about what drives such impressive whale acrobatics.

One possibility is that the whales breach just for fun, similar to humans and other terrestrial mammals when they are excited or playing. Another option is that they use breaching and other surface activity as a way of communicating to other whales. If you’ve ever been close to a breaching whale, you know that the sound is astonishing. The sound is also quite loud underwater and may be used to communicate the whale’s location or activity level to other whales in the distance. It has also been suggested that whales breach to deter predators or other perceived threats.

Young calves may have a completely separate motivation for breaching. As more mother and calf pairs enter Hervey Bay, researchers and whalewatch passengers alike can’t help but to notice the awkward jumps of young calves. These calves are trying to imitate what the larger whales are doing with mixed success. Breaching calves are entertaining to watch, but there has been recent research suggesting that through repeated breaching, humpback whale calves increase the amount of myoglobin in their muscles. Myoglobin is a protein that binds iron and oxygen, and high concentrations of myoglobin can improve the diving ability of marine mammals.

There are a variety of possible explanations for why whales breach, but it is most likely that whales do not breach for any single reason, but rather do this behavior for a number of reasons that serve different functions throughout the seasons and over the course of their lives.

Written by Eilidh Milligan

Paddle Out For The Whales makes a splash in Australia

As part of the Hervey Bay Oceans Festival, our researchers had the opportunity to be involved in Paddle Out for the Whales–an event to help raise awareness of the threats whales face today. 

The event involved paddling out on a craft of your choice (SUP, kayak, inflatable raft, or handmade) to observe a minute of silence acknowledging the importance of whales and the ocean to Hervey Bay. Before the paddle out began, a live Zumba session got the paddlers loose and limber. One of our research volunteers, Jaimi, paddled out by kayak to participate in the event while Research Assistant Jessica remained on land to give an informative talk about PWF’s research in Hervey Bay. A PWF booth was present at the event to sell items from our Australia-based gift shop, as well as engage with community members about the research in Australia.  The event also featured live music, sandcastle building, and construction of a 6-foot papier mache whale.

Written by Eilidh Milligan

Field season in Australia is underway

Pacific Whale Foundation’s Australia research program is off to a great start this year. Based out of the town of Hervey Bay, we observe the whales as they migrate along the east coast of Australia, travelling south to their Antarctic feeding grounds. We have had some amazing whale encounters, and we are already starting to see mothers arriving with their calves. Our research staff and volunteers have been going out daily since mid-July to photograph the humpback whales that migrate through the region. The whales in this population mate and have their calves in the tropical areas of northeast Australia and Oceania. The bay is relatively shallow and protected by Fraser Island, offering a nice area for the whales to stop over during their long migration south.

Working from the MV Amaroo operated by the Hervey Bay Boat Club, our researchers take opportunistic identification photos of the underside of the whales’ tail flukes. Since each fluke is unique to the individual, these photos allow us to compare the fluke of each whale we see in the field with our catalog of known whales to determine the history of sightings for each animal. Additionally, the team tries to get photos of the dorsal fins and body of the animal which helps us assess overall body condition as well as any lesions or scars that may indicate injury or poor health. To learn more about our Australian research projects, visit our website. To try your hand at matching fluke photos from our South Pacific catalog, create an account and get started at Match My Whale.

 

The lives and loves of Machalilla National Park

It is always exciting to see competing pods of male humpback whales. Their jumps, bumps, and tail maneuvers directed at the females also serve to amaze and surprise us observers. Puerto Lopez, the marine area off the Machalilla National Park, is known for breeding and mating humpback whales. It is a magical place and very exciting to see these whales looking for love. This month we will likely begin to see the calves during our encounters, the product of last year’s mating.

Newborn calves are born a whopping 4 meters in length and have a light whitish color. This appearance makes them even more beautiful to us than their parents are. Though their size and weight may be small, they can easily propel their bodies out of the water, often imitating the adult behaviors.

This week we came across what we presumed to be a pregnant female with two accompanying adults. Close to Isla de La Plata, the group of three humpbacks seemed to be helping each other. One appeared pregnant and looked ready to give birth, the other two appearing to help. The behavior was incredible to watch. The escort would slowly suspend his tail in the air then gently assist in floating the slow moving pregnant female to the surface with nudges from his rostrum. Sometimes we could see the head pop up beneath the female, similar to a spy hope but very slow.  We were hoping to witness a birth, and stayed as long as possible, but with no luck.

When we have such close encounters and see a new life being created in Ecuadorian waters, we pledge to work harder for these magnificent creatures. Humpback whales are part of our world, and we consider them to be Ecuadorian because they are made and born in Ecuador.

AMOR Y VIDA EN EL PARQUE NACIONAL MACHALILLA

Siempre es exitante ver ballenas, sus saltos, golpes de cola y todas las maniobras que hacen para sorprender a las hembras. Por supuesto, Puerto López y el área marina del Parque Nacional Machalilla es una mágica área de amor y pasión de ballenas. Es conocida como área de reproducción y apareamiento. Sin embargo a partir de este mes, lo que más me gusta, es encontrar crías o bebes de ballenas.

Me encanta cuando una madre esta cerca a su cría, la cobija y no se separa de ella. Las crías nacen con 4 metros de largo y tienen un color más claro y blanquesino. Las crías saltan muchas veces o tratan de imitar el comportamiento de los adultos, son todavía más bellas y tiernas, aunque su tamaño y peso realmente nos supere.

Esta semana pudimos encontrar crías pero tambien hembras preñadas.  Cerca a la Isla de La Plata había un grupo de tres  jorobadas que parecía ayudarse unas con otras. Una de ellas preñada y lista para dar a luz, dos de sus compañeros simulaban ayudarle, su comportamiento era increible, como flotando, sacaban la cola lentamente y la mantenían en el aire y después era como que empujaban a la hembra a la superficie, estaba gorda y nadaba lentamente. A veces podía ver sus cabezas lentamente como en posición de espía. Esperamos todo el tiempo que pudimos, cruzando los dedos por ver a la cría, no tuvimos suerte, pero estamos seguros que esa cría nació en ese día.

Cuando tenemos estas experiencias de cerca y podemos ver crear nueva vida y esta vida esta en aguas ecuatorianas, nos comprometemos a trabajar más duro, para seguirlas viendo nacer y no tener que verlas morir a manos de la cacería inconsciente y discriminada, que no entiende que el mundo es una solo y que estamos obligados a compartirlo y no ha dominarlo. Las ballenas jorobadas son parte de nuestro mundo, son ecuatorianas porque nacen y se hacen en Ecuador.